Online Academy

  • What is Affective Needs?


  • What is Multiple Intelligences?

  • What is Multimodality?

According to Denver Public Schools:

"Students with affective needs fall into two categories: social emotional functioning and executive functioning. The treatments are vastly different, but in either case, the student’s behaviors are impacting their ability to access the general education classroom and/or social relationships."

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The theory of multiple intelligences (MI) was first proposed by Howard Gardner in the book Frames of Mind (1983). Instead of asking the question: "How smart are you?", multiple intelligence asks: "How are you smart?"  According to Gardner's website: the classical view “ intelligence is defined as the ability to answer items on tests of intelligence” to paraphrase, the inferences made from the test scores allegedly shows a persons underlying ability and it’s is supported by statistical techniques. These techniques compare responses of subjects at different ages – and without getting off topic, they generally don’t say as much as we act like they do.

 Under this view, intelligence is an inborn quality of the individual.

 Multiple intelligences theory, on the other hand, pluralizes the traditional concept. An intelligence is the ability to process a certain kind of information—that is founded on human biology and human psychology. Humans have certain kinds of intelligences, whereas rats and birds have other kinds. 

For more info, check out my podcast Teacher Talk, episode 4 discusses Howard Gardner and MI!

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  • What is Culturally Responsive Literacy?

Pahl and Rowsell (2012) define multimodality as a way of making meaning that allows for different of modes. For example, making a clay sculpture or a diorama, or another type of scale model as a form of communication is an example of multimodality.

So that’s multimodality, multimodal literacy is literacy teaching and learning that takes account of all modes within texts of all kinds (Pahl & Rowsell, 2012). So using a podcast to teach would be an example of a multimodal literacy

According to Digital Life Place Narratives, a blog about multimodal learning, multimodal literacies are "works that use more than just words and letters to communicate a thought they may include audio, video, photographs, drawings–basically, any visual element used to supplement the text in some purposeful way. When multimodal texts are viewed, analyzed, and created in the composition classroom, students and instructors are engaging in multimodal composition! Podcasts, blogs, collages, video or audio essays, comic strips, and storyboards all fall under the category of multimodal composition assignments."

It goes on to say that "multimodal assignments can help our students develop visual and digital literacy, which is key in a world where new technologies are constantly emerging…our students are already interacting in digital contexts that require multimodal writing. By assigning multimodal projects, we prepare our students to effectively communicate in these contexts."

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In the US, matters pertaining to "language, skin color, and economic status often impact academic achievement"; while approximately 20% of K-12 school students school students speak a language other than English and that number is expected to increase substantially and continuously, most teachers belong to a "middle-class demographic and are often cultural outsiders with respect to the culturally and linguistically diverse populations they serve" (Schmidt & Lazar, 2011, p. 1,6). 

According to the National Center for Culturally Responsive Educational Systems, culturally responsive literacy (CRL) models "examine not only the methods of teaching students to engage with and learn from multiple texts, but also consider the many purposes for which individuals become literate. This module examines the purposes of literacy in students' lives, methods of designing and implementing culturally responsive literacy instruction, and the use of many forms of literacy as powerful tools for student engagement in school and social change. Participants are guided through information and activities that question how literacy is used applied to students' lives, as well as how culturally responsive literacy instruction can address achievement gaps for students who are culturally and linguistically diverse and/or students with disabilities."

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